The biggest and beefiest mobile processors on phones right now are of the quad-core variety. They came up so fast, that it makes you wonder what the future holds. Could we see six-core or eight-core chips? How about a 48-core chip? Don't scoff. Apparently "Chipzilla" themselves, Intel is working on this right now and anticipate them coming to market sometime within the next five to ten years. Here's a quote with some additional info:

Intel is already visualizing that and it sees 48-core processors powering both smartphones and tablets. That's twelve times as many as there are in a high-end chip available today! Needless to say, having so many cores on a single piece of silicon would allow smartphones and tablets to handle CPU-intensive tasks with ease by splitting the workload. For example, if someone is watching a high-resolution video, each frame could be decoded by an individual core. Advanced tasks that currently require processing to be offloaded to a computer in the cloud will be performed offline. All the while, Intel promises that such chips will be energy efficient.
It's amazing to witness the near exponential growth of technology. Perhaps in 50-100 years we won't be able to tell the difference between a carbon-based brain and a silicon-based one.

Source: PhoneArena